Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Human Research Management at Infosys Corporation

Human Research Management at Infosys Corporation Infosys is a global information technology service provider with its headquarters in India. With the rapid rates of its growth and the changing environmental factors, the human resource department faced the challenges of the increased rates of turnover caused by the reduced employees’ satisfaction with their working conditions.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Human Research Management at Infosys Corporation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This paper will discuss the main precursors of the employees’ dissatisfaction and turnover and the measures which were imposed by the human resource department for the purpose of building the employees’ competencies, retaining the skillful workforce, increasing the levels of their engagement and translating it into the improved performance. Summary of the case Having been ranked as the no. 1 in the Best Employer Surveys in 2001 and 2002, Infosys topple d from these lists and reported a significant decrease in the employee’s satisfaction and commitment in 2003. Recognizing the role of human resources in the company’s organizational success, the top management investigated the main underlying causes of the existing problems and took measures for improving the current state of affairs. Created in 1981 by Narayana Murthy and his six colleagues with borrowed $ 250, after the decades of its hard struggle against the bureaucratic environment and near to death survival, the company was growing at a rapid rate since 1999. The shift from body-shopping to offshoring, moving up the IT value chain, improving the company’s brand equity and ensuring that the company is the employer of choice for the best potential employees, Infosys managed to overcome the difficulties occurring at the initial stage of its development. Ensuring that the salaries of their employees were about 15-20 % higher than offered by the competitors and developing a deep understanding of the workers’ attitudes, the company created favorable working environment. As it was admitted by the company’s HR manager, â€Å"There are three ways in which we add value to the employee: learning value-add through training, emotional value-add through the work environment, and financial value-add through compensation and benefits† (Delong 6). At early 2000s, the skyrocketing number of employees and the external challenges in the form of the US restrictions on the visas for business purposes decreased the employees’ satisfaction and commitment which required the changes in the human resource strategies for handling the issues of the high turnover rates and improving the performance. Value-add through training Realizing the importance of introducing the employees into the Infosys culture, the company developed separate training programs for the college graduates coming to the company as their first working place and the employees coming to Infosys from other companies.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The emphasis upon learnability instead of strong IT backgrounds in the candidates for fulfilling the vacancies allowed Infosys to hire promising specialists and take the advantages of effective hiring processes which was complimented with the following training programs (Birkinshaw 20). Nurturing the talent and competencies was recognized as one of the primary objectives at Infosys in the organizational report of 2008-09 (â€Å"Infosys Sustainability Report 2008-09†). The enrollment of the employees into the training programs aimed at enhancing their professional, leadership and sustainability knowledge has become a common practice at the company. The Special Training Program is a new initiative at Infosys which through the partnership with the Indian universities and balancing their curricula builds the necessary competencies in the students from the socially disadvantaged sectors. This solution can be recognized as an important contribution to the future hiring processes as the company. Value-add through the work environment Along with the training programs aimed at building the competencies in the employees, Infosys takes the initiatives for creating the favorable working environment within the company. The goal of preserving the position of one of the leading employers in the industry was proclaimed as one of the business objectives at Infosys in the organizational report of 2008-09 (â€Å"Infosys Sustainability Report 2008-09†). As it was reported in 2008-09, the programs such as STRAP (Strategic and Action Planning), Voice of Youth (VoY) and Infosys Women Inclusivity (IWIN) are aimed at increasing the employees’ involvement into the decision making processes and creating the favorable working environment and giving serious co nsideration to the diverse needs of the employees’ population. The attempts to support employees with physical disabilities have been made since 2006 when the Equal Opportunities Team was created (â€Å"Infosys Sustainability Report 2008-09†). Moreover, the Family Network Program was launched for the purpose of supporting the employees in balancing their work-personal life issues. Another important objective was facilitating the employee-employer dialogue which was achieved through conducting meetings and surveys focused on the employees’ inclusivity and satisfaction. Sparsh as the company’s intranet allowed fostering the feeling of community and inclusivity among the workforce, whereas Infy TV as the first corporate TV channel in India allowed creating a strong communication platform.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Human Research Management at Infosys Corporation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The strategies aimed at improving the working environment were helpful for improving the employees’ satisfaction with their working conditions. Still, the rates of turnover at Infosys remained enormously high and reached 14, 568 employees leaving the company during the year 2009 (with the 104,850 as the total number of employees in 2009) (Dey 45). Value-add through compensation Turning the employees’ competencies and engagement into high performance is an important element of the human resource strategy at Infosys. Infosys was one of the first Indian companies to offer the stock options to its employees in 1994 for the purpose of retaining the brightest workforce and reducing the risks of losing them to the US competitors. However, with the skyrocketing number of employees in early 2000s, Infosys replaced its stock options with the higher levels of incentive pay (Birkinshaw 19). Currently, employees can associate their pay with their individual and c orporate performance. Another significant improvement was the change of the promotion model. The promotion policy linked to the specific needs of the organization was one of the major causes of the employees’ dissatisfaction (Delong 9). Developing clear role definitions and the performance assessment scales was a significant step forward in solving this problem. Additional factor aimed at stimulating the employees’ improved performance is the highly competitive working place. Thus, after the performance assessments are completed, every individual is informed on his/her place within the peer group. Combining the collaborative approach with competitive environment within Infosys is expected to foster the workers’ motivation and improving their performance. Conclusion Recognizing the importance of retaining the skillful workforce and adopting the effective hiring strategies for the company’s business performance, Infosys has been making attempts to improve t he working environment, training and compensation patterns for increasing the employees’ satisfaction since the early 2000s. Though the turnover rates within the company still remained rather high as it was reported in 2009, the measures taken for improving the environment, facilitating the employee-employer dialogue and improving the workers’ motivation and engagement were important for improving the existing situation.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Birkinshaw, Julian. â€Å"Infosys: Computing the Power of People†. Business Strategy Review, Winter 2008, 19(4): 18-23. Print. Delong, Thomas. â€Å"Infosys (A): Strategic Human Resource Management†. Harvard Business School, 16 Oct. 2006, Print. Dey, Subhendu. â€Å"Employee Retention- A Key to Organizational Growth†. Globsyn Business School, January-June 2009, 3(1): 45- 49. Print. â€Å"Infosys Sustainability Report 2008-09†. Infosys Corporate Site, 31 March 2009. Web.

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Hospital Birth vs. Home Birth Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Hospital Birth vs. Home Birth - Essay Example Discussion NCT (2008) states that, â€Å"In the 1950’s the majority of pregnant women in United Kingdom delivered their babies at home† (p.2). The ratio of midwives and women who were knowledgeable in midwifery to the general population was higher compared to the past decade. Most middle aged women had experience in midwifery having assisted in child delivery of a family member of a friend. At the time, home birth was considered reasonably safe and without concerns of overcrowding and fatigue. NCT (2008) continues to state that, â€Å"Trends gradually changed in the 1970’s towards the 80’s as hospital births increased in frequency and numbers. By the 1990’s home births had reduced significantly to about 1% (p.2).† In recent times this percentage has increased to 2.68% as popularity and campaigns for home births have increased. ACOG (2011) notes that â€Å"Most governments require that recommendations be made to pregnant women to have a choic e of their desired place of birthing.† A medical professional can evaluate and examine a pregnant woman and suggest a place of birth for the woman explaining his or her recommendation based on medical grounds to her. The key factors to be considered when choosing between home birth and hospital birth are the safety of the procedure, the sense of security of the mother and the level or sense of control. According to ACOG (2011), â€Å"Women who inquire on planned home births at medical facilities should be adequately informed of its benefits and possible risks.† This information should be based on current and documented evidence. The advising party should clearly note to the mother that although the possible risks associated with home birth may be minimal, home birth is closely associated with increased risk of neo natal death. The risk of neo natal death is two to three fold that of hospital birth. To achieve a successful and reduced-risk planned home birth, the woman r equires selecting suitable candidates for the home birth. â€Å"A nurse certified in midwifery, physician or midwife who is qualified and aptly practices within regulations set by the local medical body should be available† (ACOG, 2011). The intended candidate should also be available for consultations. Safe, easy and timely access to a hospital or medical facility should be possible at the slightest chance of complications occurring. An easy access to hospital should provide contingency in case complications develops and the mother and or infant require emergency medical attention. ACOG (2011) states, â€Å"At present, the United States records an approximate figure of 25,000 home births annually.† From this figure, a quarter of the births is not attended to and is unplanned due to the spontaneity or unexpected labor. On average, the fraction of women who initially plan and intend to deliver at a hospital, those women who fail to make provisions for the attendance of a certified medical professional in midwifery, and unplanned homebirths record high rates and instances of neo natal and pre natal deaths. Women should plan for any eventuality and sudden changes in original or intended plans. The lack of transport to the designated/ planned hospital may warrant a home birth. In case no provisions were made to equip the home or vicinity/ surrounding with equipment and tools of delivery, the woman runs the risk of infection to

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Lung Cancer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Lung Cancer - Essay Example Lung cancer originates in the lungs. Cancer is a disease that is usually associated with the wild growth of abnormal cells. In lung cancer, abnormal cells grow in an uncontrolled way in both or one of the lungs. Due to the fact that the cells are abnormal, they do not develop into healthy tissues and do not play any roles similar to those of normal lung cells. As abnormal cells continue to grow, they develop into a large mass known as a tumor. In a case where the tumor is located in the lungs, it can interfere with the lungs normal functions. DNA, which is a genetic component found in cells is contained in all body cells. Duplication of DNA occurs every time a mature cell divides to form new cells. For this reason, the new cells also contain DNA. Cells that are formed from the division of a mature cell are identical to the original cell in all ways. In the case where the cells are abnormal, this is usually related to a DNA error or mutation. This is usually the case in cancer. A lung cancer cell is a result of a series of mutations. Cells undergoing mutation can still function as normal cells; during this stage, the cells are said to be precancerous. With time, the cells become cancerous and it is during this time that they stop functioning as normal cells of the lungs. Lung cancer may be primary or secondary. This is usually determined by the point of origin of the growth of abnormal cells. This is because in some cases, cells travel from the original tumor to other parts of the body and continue growing there.

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Corporate Governance and Ethical Responsibility Essay Example for Free

Corporate Governance and Ethical Responsibility Essay 1. Determine at least three different internal and external stakeholders that Dr. DoRight might have to deal with on a daily basis at the hospital. Stakeholders are individuals who are involved in, have a vested interest in, or a â€Å"stake† in the success of an organization (Merriam-Webster, 2011), such as a hospital. Dr. DoRight is an influential decision maker as the President of the Universal Human Care Hospital and it is important for him to consider how his decisions and actions affect the stakeholders of the hospital. In the course of his daily activities Dr. Do Right will interact and impact many of the hospital’s internal and external stakeholders. Internal stakeholders are be committed to an organization’s success. Often internal stakeholders will participate in the strategic development of coordinating resources to fund and sustain an operation. Examples of internal stakeholders which Dr. DoRight might engage daily would be: Director of Public Health, Head of Health Intelligence and Information, Director of Nursing, Public Health Strategists, Vice President of Human Relations or Members of the Board of Trustees (Markwell, 2010). External stakeholders are not directly connected to the organization; however, they are vested in the hospital’s success as clients, business or community partners. These stakeholders have influence over organizational activities by contributing their views and experiences related to issues which are important to them. Medical providers or suppliers, Patient Advocacy Groups, Quality Assessors, the Media, and Heads of Local Community and Special Interest Groups are examples of external stakeholders Dr. DoRight may deal with on a daily basis (Markwell, 2010). 2. Compare and contrast potential conflicts of interest that may exist between the internal and external stakeholders. Conflicts of interest exist between the hospital’s internal and external stakeholders. Medical providers such as, staffed research doctors or pharmaceutical manufactures want to provide the ‘best’ wellness plan by providing cutting-edge tests, treatments and medications which are likely to be more expensive to the payer or patients. Payers, such as insurance providers and private paying patients, would prefer a more cost effective approach to wellness with accurate diagnosis and treatments with fewer visits and tests (Wiseman, 2005). Although internal and external stakeholders may have different priorities, they will share common objectives. All stakeholders will share common ambitions for Universal Human Care Hospital to provide quality medical services to its patients. Additionally, all stakeholders will appreciate the hospitals efforts to improve the quality of life for the community it directly serves. (Markwell, 2010). 3. Discuss whether Dr. DoRight has fulfilled his ethical duty by reporting the illegal procedures. Dr. DoRight has reported the illegal procedures and patents dying due to negligent supervision and oversight to his Regional Director, Compliance Manager, as well as an Executive Committee in January 2009, but he has not fulfilled his ethical duty. As a doctor it is his responsibility to protect all patients from criminal acts including the illegal procedures and negligent supervision which has been reported at Universal Human Care Hospital. As there has been no result from the investigation after two years he has a responsibility to take further action to preserve the lives of patients. His ethical duty should include reporting the illegal procedures, as well as, the negligent supervision and oversight to higher ranking internal authorities. If the appropriate investigation and corrective actions do not occur he has a further ethical obligation to report the incidents to external authorities. As a doctor he is legally bound to take reasonable action. The law recognizes several exceptions the â€Å"no duty to rescue† rule and several apply to Dr. Do Right’s ethical dilemma (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). Continued deaths due to negligence and illegal procedures should be reported beyond the Regional Director, Compliance Manager and the Executive Committee as the failure to do so may result in his dismissal or even criminal prosecution. As a doctor he assumes contractual responsibilities to medically help others, and prevent them from being harmed. Patients in the hospital in which he is President may be lulled into a false sense of security, believing they will be helped, only to be neglected when lifesaving assistance is needed. Doctors and nurses employed in the medial facility which he oversees are endangering their patients and he is currently participating in creating a dangerous situation for several patients. Finally, there is a â€Å"special relationship† between Dr. DoRight’s medical facility and their patients. This relationship has a degree of dependency from the patient to the hospital and those whom govern the medical facility. As the President of Universal Human Care Hospital he is required to reasonably protect all patients from harm including the protection from the illegal procedures performed by the medical staff, and neglect or oversight of the supervising staff (Halbert Ingulli, 2 012). 4. Describe the deontology principle and apply it to the ethical dilemma that Dr. DoRight faces in this case. The deontology principle â€Å"is marked by steadfastness to universal principles †¦[of] respect for life, fairness, telling the truth, keeping promises – no matter what the consequences† (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). Immanuel Kant, the most famous deontological thinker, believed humans could rationally develop an absolute set of rules to govern behavior, and these rules should be applied in all situations without consideration of the consequences. For example, Immanuel Kant believed there is a never good time to lie, even if it could produce a favorable outcome, such as lying saving someone’s life (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). Under the deontology principle, moral and ethical behavior â€Å"is a matter of holding, without exception, to certain principles† or categorical imperatives (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). The first of these principles is that people should act under the assumption that the same action they chose should be repeated if roles were reversed and they ended up on the receiving end of those actions. In Dr. DoRight’s ethical dilemma a deontological approach would require him to make his decisions in the frame of reference of being a patient whose death resulted from the hospital’s negligence or oversight. If Dr. DoRight made decisions in this frame of reference it is doubtful two years would pass without any definitive findings from the internal investigation into patient deaths (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). Another categorical imperative of the deontology principle is that it is unethical for people to use others for their own gain. A mutually beneficial relationship should exist where all stakeholders gain something they want. In Dr. DoRight’s ethical dilemma, the relationship could be mutually beneficial if the patient receives suitable medial services and attention in exchange for monetary compensation. Dr. DoRight’s decisions can be considered unethical as the relationship is not mutually beneficial. Patients within his hospital to continue to die as a result of a variety of illegal procedures, while Dr. DoRight continues to win awards for his leadership and meeting his business goals (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). Patients have a right to make a fully informed decision when selecting their medical providers. Making fully informed decision for oneself is â€Å"of great ethical value in deontology† (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). In the last two years, Dr. DoRight has told his Regional Director, Compliance Manager and the Executive Committee about the patient deaths due; however, disclosures are not provided to patients. With the insight of increased mortality rates due to the illegal procedures coupled with negligence and oversight it less likely patients will chose his medical facility for their health care needs. It is unethical according to the deontology principles to keep this information from patients. An infringement is being placed on some of the patients most basic rights; the right to life and health. Within the deontology principle this is never acceptable. Dr. DoRight falls short of several deontological principles, and is unethically infringing on the rights of his patients who are dying as a result of his decisions (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). 5. Describe the utilitarianism principle and apply it to the ethical dilemma that Dr. DoRight faces in this case The utilitarianism principle guides individuals, like Dr, DoRight, to ethically â€Å"behave in a given situation †¦ to choose an alternative that is likely to produce the greatest overall outcome.† This principle evaluates the advantages and costs of an individual’s actions not only for the decision maker, but for all stakeholders who will be impacted by the decision. Within the utilitarianism principle the long and short term consequences to the stakeholders are analyzed when evaluating a dilemma, while weighing the size of the group and the effects of the decision upon the stakeholders (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). In Dr. DoRight’s dilemma some consequences may be shared by numerous stakeholders, both internal and external. For example, the media could tarnish the reputation of the hospital and several of its staff by publicizing the deaths as prev entable. This consequence could result in an increase of livelihood for external stakeholders such as the media, medical malpractice attorneys, or the extended family member of deceased patients. At the same time, it could result in the loss of livelihood amongst internal stakeholders such as; doctors, nurses and other members of as the hospital’s 5,000 employed staff (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). Smaller external stakeholders carry the burden of the greatest negative consequences. Most costly would be the loss of life to patients who died as a result of illegal procedures and negligent supervision. Although this group of stakeholders may be small in comparison to the 20,000 patients treated at the hospital, â€Å"losses of life and health weigh heavily on the scale† when assessing the consequences of a decision within the utilitarianism principle (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). The causes of deaths have not been revealed after two years of internal investigation. If an outside organization investigated the details of the illegal practices and neglect it could negatively impact some internal stakeholders. An external investigation could have a negative impact on hospital finances, the Executive committee, and the livelihood of the Regional Director, Compliance Manager or their direct staff. On the other hand, patients, doctors and other stakeholders could benefit from this same decision in the form of additional staffing, proper training and technology to provide accurate diagnosis. Ultimately, the short-term costs a few internal stakeholders of the hospital would be outweighed by the long-term benefits to several stakeholders if Dr. DoRight made this decision (Halbert Ingulli, 2012). References Halbert, T. Ingulli, E. (2012). Law, Ethics, Business. In Law Ethics in the Business Environment (7th ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning. Markwell, S. (2010). Health knowledge. Retrieved from http://www.healthknowledge.org.uk/public-health-textbook/organisation-management/5b-understanding-ofs/managing-internal-external-stakeholders Merriam-Webster. (2011). Stakeholder. In Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/stakeholder Wiseman, B. (2005). Who are the stakeholders in healthcare?. Retrieved from http://patientsafetyed.duhs.duke.edu/module_a/introduction/stakeholders.html

Monday, January 20, 2020

Nietzsches Critique of Religion Essay -- Nietzsches Critique of Chri

Nietzsche's critique of religion is largely based on his critique of Christianity. Nietzsche says that in modern Europe, people are atheistic, even though they don't realise it. People who say they are religious aren't really and those who say they have moved on haven't actually moved on. Certain people in society retain features of Christianity. For example, socialists still believe in equality in all people. Others still have pity for the poor and needy etc. Nietzsche dislikes religion especially Christianity because it encourages and promotes slave morality. Nietzsche says that we should be striving towards master morality, but Christianity has the completely opposite values to those of the master morality. For example, religion wants us to be like slaves and give things up instead of trying to be great. He talks about a slave revolt in morality, which leads to the dominance of slave values over master values. Christianity is that slave revolt. The problem for Nietzsche is the New Testament - the introduction of Jesus. He thinks that linking the Old Testament with the New Testament is very cheeky. They are two different books with complete different ideas and so should not be linked together. The Old Testament is full of power - Nietzsche likes that. But he objects to the values of the New Testament that shouldn't be linked to the Old Testament. They demote power. He sees religion as intensely nihilistic - it's all about denying life and being negative. Nietzsche feels that the New Testament is also like that. We have to go beyond this. If Christianity and Schopenhaur are based on denying life ... ...itique is that he views religion from the outside, so doesn't this make it a one-sided story? But obviously Nietzsche will think that his critique is one-sided. He is a perspectivist. Why is a view from outside any less valid than a view from inside? Is the ladder of religious cruelty a complete account of religious development. What about a sacrificing himself for humanity? This doesn't get mentioned. However we could say that Nietzsche rejects that because he obviously doesn't believe in God and insofar as God is 'one of the suffering'. This confirms Nietzsche's negative view of religion / Christianism. Nietzsche said that religion shouldn't How can religion not be an 'end-in-itself' for religious believers? A counter-argument to this would be to say that religion as an instrument is not a religion.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Robert. M. Sapolsky: An Example of Versatility and Dedication

Civilization is a flow of billions of human beings, but it is only few who take up the task of developing it. It is purely their hard work that secures, augments, ramifies and manifests the lives of the rest.Away from the usual buzz of the society or any glitz, these people devote their energy, time and attention on the discoveries of science and art.These hermits, who are usually oblivious of laurels or social recognition, rightfully deserve to be highlighted, as that could inspire many to become their active followers. Hence, this essay focuses on a person who belongs to that rank and file, with a trail of his contribution in the field of biology. He is Robert. M. Sapolsky.The Sparks and Steps Chance collision ruled Sapolsky's destiny. Otherwise, even he didn't imagine that someone groomed in urban settings like Benson Hurst and Brooklyn, could fall in love with Natural History Museum of New York, and subsequently with paleontology – which finally set the mind of a boy of 12 years to explore the lives of primates for the rest of his life.That concrete aim about future made him taking Swahili at the school level, as he was determined to go to Africa! After that, he developed his interest on neuroscience, which propelled his focus on the neurobiological basis of behavior. In this way a roadmap of his activities were made: from field behavior to brain and behavior.He found his mentor in Melvin Konnor (the writer of ‘The Tangled Wing', on brain and behavior), who was the chairman of anthropology at Emory University, whose writing prowess equally attracted Sapolsky. No wonder, he gradually has risen himself to the rank of his mentor, by becoming a researcher per excellence and also one of the finest scientific and natural history writer, save his oratory skills.Otherwise, he received his Ph.D. in Neuroendocrinology from Rockefeller University, before receiving his AB in biological anthropology from Harvard University. Currently he is a professor at St anford University.On the Field The umpteenth number of solitary sojourns in the grasslands of Kenya for 20 years, coupled with uncounted hours in laboratory perhaps took Sapolsky where he is today – most knowledgeable person on earth about baboon behavior, an inveterate researcher of neuroscience, a magnificent orator and a prolific writer, who once made Serengeti as his hermitage.Sapolsky, the Common Man He has two young kids and a zoologist wife. Since the kids are not yet ready to lead a tent-life, he has to shuttle between Manhattan and Nairobi, but that doesn't put up any stress on him – why, he himself is a stress specialist! He misses out nothing, except his piano sessions – though there is a piano in his lab, which was once brought by his first salary – he doesn't get time for it anymore!

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Essay about The Right of Reigious Freedom - 1219 Words

Religious freedom is arguably the oldest and deepest of rights embedded in the modern collection of liberties. Religion has been historically one of the most powerful forces in shaping the morals of humanity. According to the 1993 Project on Religion and Human rights; Religion is defined as: Encompassing a world view or set of beliefs, along with a value system and a way of life embodying and expressing these beliefs. They are not merely a matter of belief or doctrine, but actually constitute an integral culture which can form personal and social identity and can influence experience and behavior significantly. Religious persecution existed as early as the biblical and Quranic era. The â€Å"rights idea† by contrast, is of comparatively†¦show more content†¦This compelled him to rid his kingdom of the new teaching and its followers. Barely a year on the throne, Mwanga started implementing his agenda by ordering the execution of Yusuf Rugarama, Mark Kakumba, and Noah Serwanga the first three Christian martyrs, on January, 31, 1885. This was followed by the murder of the Anglican Bishop James Hannington who had been dispatched as head of Eastern Equatorial Africa, headquarte red in Buganda in October 1885. Joseph M.Balikuddembe a senior advisor to the King and a Catholic convert condemned Mwanga for ordering the Bishop’s death especially with out giving him a chance to defend him self as was customary. Mwanga in retaliation ordered the arrest and execution of Balikuddembe on November 15, 1885 as the first Catholic martyr. Mwanga II precipitated the show down in May 1886 by ordering the converts to choose between their new faith, and complete obedience to his orders. Those unwilling to renounce their new faith would be subjected to death. Courageously, the neophytes chose their faith. The execution of twenty six Christians at Namugongo on June 3, 1886; was the climax of the campaign against the converts. To date, 3 June is a public holiday in Uganda for commemorating the Uganda Martyrs. Else where in the world, after decades of religious wars which drew in all of the main forces finally concluded the Westphalia Treaties in 1648 in which the Peace among others established a